The army and navy cooperated and contributed by supporting prosthetics research laboratories within their respective organizations.Tags: Art Essay ExampleExamples Of Descriptive EssayExpository Essay PowerpointEssay On Healthy MindAs English Creative Writing CourseworkReflection On Research PaperReview Of Related Literature Samples
As a result of a visit by a commission to Europe in 1946, Eberhart HD, Mc Kennon JC: Suction-socket suspension of the above-knee prosthesis, in Klopsteg PE, Wilson PD: Human Limbs and Their Substitutes.
Mc Graw-Hill International Book Co, New York, 1954. The results of this study, coupled with information derived from the locomotion studies at the University of California, Berkeley, led to a biomechanical rationale for the design and fabrication of the socket and the alignment of transfemoral prostheses.
Concurrently, on the basis of a number of innovations in transtibial (below-knee) socket designs made by practitioners in various parts of the country, Radcliffe and Foort developed the rationale and techniques of fabrication for what is now known as the "patellar tendon-bearing" (PTB) prosthesis.
Education in fabrication and application was first offered through university education programs in 1960.
No doubt artificial limbs of some type, such as a forked stick, have been used since the beginning of mankind, but the earliest recorded use of a limb prosthesis is that of a Persian soldier, Hegesistratus, who was reported by Herodotus to have escaped about 484 B. from stocks by cutting off one of his feet and replacing it with a wooden one.
The oldest known artificial limb in existence was a copper-and-wood leg unearthed at Capri, Italy, in 1858, which was supposedly made about 300 B. Unfortunately, it was destroyed during a bombing of London in World War II.The concept of kineplasty to power upper-limb prostheses directly by muscle contraction was introduced by Vanghetti about 1900, in an effort to make the distal end of the cut bone able to bear weight, recommended an osteoplastic procedure in which the cut end was covered with a flap of cortical bone connected by a periosteal hinge.This procedure never became widespread, but in the late 1940s, Ertl Weiss M, Gielzynski A, Wirski J: Myoplasty Immediate Fitting Ambulation.The reason for the dissolution of these bodies has never been made completely clear.The Artificial Limb Program, as it came to be known, was started initially with the idea that physicians and surgeons could provide engineers with design criteria for components such as ankle and knee joints and that good engineering design based on these criteria coupled with modern materials would result in devices that could solve many of the problems of the amputee.Each major war seems to have been the stimulus not only for improvement of amputation surgical techniques but also for the development of improved prostheses.Toward the end of World War II, amputees in military hospitals in the United States began voicing their disappointment about the performance afforded by their artificial limbs.A conference of surgeons, prosthetists, and scientists organized by the NAS early in 1945 revealed that little modern scientific effort had gone into the development of artificial limbs, and a "crash" research program was launched later in 1945 through the NAS.Committee on Artificial Limbs, National Research Council: Terminal Research Reports on Artificial Limbs (Covering the Period From April 1, 1945, Through June 30, 1947). This effort was initially funded by the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD).Although some progress was made early in the program by this approach, it soon became apparent that fundamental information on how human limbs function was needed before adequate design criteria could be formulated.To provide such information on lower-limb function, a project was established at the University of California, Berkeley, as a joint responsibility of the Engineering School in Berkeley and the Medical School in San Francisco.