Daniel Kaufmann, from the World Bank, extends the concept to include 'legal corruption' in which power is abused within the confines of the law—as those with power often have the ability to make laws for their protection.The effect of corruption in infrastructure is to increase costs and construction time, lower the quality and decrease the benefit.Corruption and crime are endemic sociological occurrences which appear with regular frequency in virtually all countries on a global scale in varying degree and proportion.Tags: Accounts AssignmentKite Runner Essay On RedemptionFour Possibilities For Beginning An EssayWeblogic Security-Role-AssignmentCollege Essay About QuoteShoe Store Business PlanHow Long Should A Scholarship Essay Be
Recent research by the World Bank suggests that who makes policy decisions (elected officials or bureaucrats) can be critical in determining the level of corruption because of the incentives different policy-makers face. The original caption for the cartoon is: "THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR INVESTIGATING THE INDIAN BUREAU.
A political cartoon from Harper's Weekly, January 26, 1878, depicting U. Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz investigating the Indian Bureau at the U. GIVE HIM HIS DUE, AND GIVE THEM THEIR DUES." Political corruption is the abuse of public power, office, or resources by elected government officials for personal gain, by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes.
It can also take the form of office holders maintaining themselves in office by purchasing votes by enacting laws which use taxpayers' money.
The political act of Graft (American English), is a well known and now global form of political corruption, being the unscrupulous and illegal use of a politician's authority for personal gain, when funds intended for public projects are intentionally misdirected in order to maximize the benefits to illegally private interests of the corrupted individual(s) and their cronies.
The Kaunas golden toilet case was a major Lithuanian scandal.
In 2009, the municipality of Kaunas (led by mayor Andrius Kupčinskas) ordered that a shipping container was to be converted into an outdoor toilet at a cost of 500,000 litai (around 150,000 euros).This is the working definition used by Transparency International (TI), applying to both the public and private sectors.The CPI focuses on corruption in the public sector, or corruption which involves public officials, civil servants or politicians. Corruption ranges from small favors between a small number of people (petty corruption), to corruption that affects the government on a large scale (grand corruption), and corruption that is so prevalent that it is part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one of the symptoms of organized crime.Corruption can occur in many sectors, whether they be public or private industry or even NGOs (especially in public sector).However, only in democratically controlled institutions is there an interest of the public (owner) to develop internal mechanisms to fight active or passive corruption, whereas in private industry as well as in NGOs there is no public control.Such corruption is commonly found in countries with authoritarian or dictatorial governments but also in those without adequate policing of corruption.The government system in many countries is divided into the legislative, executive and judiciary branches in an attempt to provide independent services that are less subject to grand corruption due to their independence from one another.Factors which encourage systemic corruption include conflicting incentives, discretionary powers; monopolistic powers; lack of transparency; low pay; and a culture of impunity.Scholars distinguish between centralized and decentralized systemic corruption, depending on which level of state or government corruption takes place; in countries such as the Post-Soviet states both types occur.Despite the investment, the "Golden Toilet" remained closed for years due to the dysfunctionality and was a subject of a lengthy anti-corruption investigation into those who had created it and The group of public servants involved in the toilet's procurement received various prison sentences for recklessness, malfeasance, misuse of power and document falsifications in a 2012 court case, but were cleared of their corruption charges and received compensation, which pushed the total construction cost and subsequent related financial losses to 352,000 euros.Various sources acclaim the Spanish People's Party – Partido Popular -, to be Europe's most corrupt party, with about yearly 45 billion euro worth of corruption.