traces its origins to the view that vicious behavior is at once funny and terrifying as a spectacle, admirable and yet grotesque, amusing but also edifying as a perverse distortion of moral behavior.' Elizabethan drama, par-ticularly Marlowe's, dramatises the contradictions of seeing history as a record of divine providence in which the world is the theatre of divine judgment.
The prologue to the first part of Tamburlaine invites audience and reader to `View but his picture in this tragicke glasse, / And then applaud his fortunes if you please.' Indeed the play seems to relish the ambivalent moral possibilities of melancholy pleasure in lamenting a world without divine providence.
Actor and player: Richard Burbage and Edward Alleyn Director and Designer: Kazan and Mielziner's plans for Death of a Salesman African American Narrative Drama Bunraku Puppets Sara Berhardt's Phedre The Children's Companies of Shakespeare's Day Max Reinhardt: Director Picasso's Parade Blackface: Minstrelsy and negative images of Black Americans The Roman Ideal: A survey of Renaissance and Baroque Costume Chinese Opera Four centuries of Midsummer Night's Dream: Shakespeare, Tieck, Reinhardt, and Peter Brook Focus on important women in the theatre (e.g. Vestris, Ellen Terry, Eleanora Duse, Sarah Bernhardt, Rachel, Janet Achurch, Stella Adler) Rangda Barong (or another non-western theatrical ritual) The Elizabethan shareholder system How the Chinese acting technique of Mei Lan Fang influenced Brecht Orson Welles' Mercury Theatre "Voodoo" Macbeth Actresses on the Restoration Stage New Discoveries about The Rose Theatre Stanislavski and Strasberg compared The use of historically accurate costumes on stage The Master Betty phenomenon Lope de Vega and The Spanish Golden Age The staging of Fuente Ovejuna Immanuel Kant and theatre Theatrical practices of the Bancrofts at the Prince of Wales Epic Theatre's influence on contemporary staging The Duke of Saxe Meiningen's contribution to theatre art Robert Edmond Jones - first professional scenographer in America Adolphe Appia and stage lighting innovations Developments in stage lighting from candles to candlepower The Theatrical Syndicate Focus on an important actor (e.g.
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 There is no document of culture which is not at the same time a document of barbarism.
And just as such a document is not free from barbarism, barbarism also taints the process of transmission ...Raymond Williams is often claimed as a major precursor of cultural materialism, but interest in institutions, discursive practices and subject positions suggests the different legacy of Althusser's attack on humanism and the influence of Foucault.New historicism, by contrast, shows scant regard for Marxism while being especially indebted to Foucault's version of Nietzsche's will to power and perspectival historicism, despite important critiques of Foucault's work. The Althusserian approach is more overtly committed to the possibility of political change but tends towards a similarly theoreticist, even formalist reduction of history.This prevalence has long been seen as excessive, a mark of something unnatural in its historical imaginary, without being understood.History in Elizabethan drama is, as title-pages characteristically predict, lamentable.History is then seen as the non-identity of nature with itself, unnatural forces struggling with natural ones.Unnatural forces, however, must also be seen as emerging from nature, while the dramatisation of history in terms of human agency suggests that unnatural acts are an aspect of human nature for which no secular concept of wordly evil is adequate.As an academic guise in which to rework the glories of the past without pausing too long over the enormity of the history surveyed, the reproduction of literary history now lies in the hands of those who can offer few reasons for continuing to produce the object of critique.Sinfield suggests that, `New historicists, therefore, like their colleagues, are sustaining many of the old routines while knowing, really, that their validity has evaporated.' As such, new historicists could be described as reformists who do not believe in progress. Recent critical discussions of Elizabethan drama, above all of Shakespeare, have centred around `new historicism', a trend consolidated in critical anthologies. New historicism is characterised by an interest in the historicity of texts and the textuality of history, and by affinities with theoretical projects concerned with power, identity and the construction of subject positions.Despite important political differences, new historicism has been linked with what has become known as `cultural materialism'. Many of the political differences stem from the uneasy relation of new historicism, and of cultural materialism, to the Marxist conception of history or historical materialism, differences which this essay seeks to accentuate.