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By the early 1830s, transplanted Americans, many of them slave owners, outnumbered the Tejanos; the Mexican government soon understood that it had committed a great error by encouraging the migration of U. Santa Anna moved his army of several thousand men into the area and decided to make an example of the insurgents.Only a few dozen fellow settlers arrived from other areas in Texas to reinforce their compatriots in the Alamo.On Santa Annas orders, all prisoners were executed; the only survivors were a woman, her infant child, and a slave, who were directed to take word of the Mexican victory to other Texan rebels. Santa Anna's army managed to force the surrender of 342 Texans near Goliad.
On his final day in office, Jackson extended official diplomatic recognition to independent Texas.
Incoming president Martin Van Buren was opposed to annexation.
Vast land grants would be awarded to the settlers if Austin could sponsor 300 families and assure the officials that the newcomers would: Only the earliest Texans paid much attention to these requirements and the vast distance from the Mexican central government left the settlers free to follow their own inclinations.
This area's great attraction was the fertile soil, ideal for cotton production. In December 1835, a group of disgruntled settlers took control of the Alamo, an old mission in San Antonio.
On March 6, four days after Texas declared independence, Mexican troops scaled the mission’s walls; 183 defenders were killed, including several Mexicans who had fought for Texas independence, and their oil-soaked bodies were set on fire outside the Alamo.
The Republic of Texas won its independence on April 21, 1836, with a final battle along the San Jacinto River.
The two massacres, the Alamo and Goliad, served to bring bickering Texans together in opposition to Santa Anna.
On April 21, 1836, the Mexicans were surprised by an inferior Texan force and completely routed in the Battle of San Jacinto.
The Panic of 1837 and the resulting depression tended to mute the issue of admitting Texas to the Union.
Disappointed Texans, anxious to join the Union, began conversations with other nations.