The nurse can be seen as an interrupter of the patient’s story.
Vital signs and subjective clues such as body language can be interpreted by the nurse to better care for the patient.
Another philosophy of nursing that sways away from the objectivity of positivism is that of feminism and critical social theory.
Critical social theory which incorporates feministic ideals seeks to liberate individuals from conscious and unconscious restraints (Wilson-Thomas, 1995).
In simultaneous worldview the person’s inner experiences, feelings and thoughts are of interest (Fawcett, 1996).
In regards to spirituality in simultaneous worldview the nurse would be sharing the experience with the patient and aim to be present for them through their suffering (Smith, 2005).Thomas Kuhn was a contributor to Historicism in nursing and provided insight into knowledge development which was lacking from the positivism philosophy (Butts & Rich, 2011).Kuhn argued that theories and knowledge should be understood within their historical context ( Rodriguez & Kotarba, 2009).Historicism falls into the paradigm of perceived view.Perceived view is based on the belief that facts and principals are embedded in history or cultural settings (Giuliano, Tyer-Viola & Lopez, 2005).The reaction worldview however is more align with the medical model and positivism philosophy; by focusing on the promotion and health of the disease whereas simultaneous focus on the wellbeing of the person and quality of life ( Barrett, 2002).Theory development was introduced as early as 1859 with the writings of Florence Nightingales Notes on Nursing: What it is and What it is not.These decisions are forever evolving and progressing based on how we grow as nurses and overtime how our individual philosophies of nursing have changed. Empiricism and positivism have often been linked together describing a viewpoint that reality can be studied and understood through research and science (Bally, 2012).Although Empiricism was able to describe events it lacked being able to explain them and describe the “why” in situations.Philosophy has played a major role in the development of nursing throughout history.Philosophy shapes who we are as nurses, what we believe and how we practice.