The early procarcinogenic events from endogenous and exogenous processes may be sustained and furthered by physiologic conditions such as obesity. It is likely that many such procarcinogenic events may never be entirely preventable because, although potentially modifiable, they are consequences of basic biologic processes, such as oxidative damage to DNA from endogenous metabolism, or stimulation of cell growth through normal hormonal processes. The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States.
The early procarcinogenic events from endogenous and exogenous processes may be sustained and furthered by physiologic conditions such as obesity. It is likely that many such procarcinogenic events may never be entirely preventable because, although potentially modifiable, they are consequences of basic biologic processes, such as oxidative damage to DNA from endogenous metabolism, or stimulation of cell growth through normal hormonal processes. The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States. The committee met in person five times from April 2010 through February 2011 and conducted additional deliberations by conference call.Tags: An Essay On A Separate Peace By John Knowles2nd Grade Math Problem Solving WorksheetsAnthropology Comparative Essay Ethnomusicology History Music MusicologyCustom Narrative EssayReally Good Excuses For Not Doing HomeworkMac Self Assigned Ip AddressThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson Essay QuestionsQuick Tips For Sat Essay
At present, a large but incomplete body of evidence is available on the relationship between breast cancer and the wide variety of external factors that can be said to comprise the environment.
Information on interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is particularly sparse.
In contrast, knowledge of the complexity of breast cancer is growing, with the characterization of multiple tumor subtypes; the possibility _________________ Loeb and Nishimura (2010, p.
4270) note that each normal cell in a person’s body may be exposed to as many as 50,000 DNA-damaging events each day, and that oxygen free radicals are a major source of DNA damage.
Although such biological “background” mutagenesis is unavoidable, highly efficient protective pathways, such as DNA repair and immune surveillance, are effective at reducing the impacts of procarcinongenic events (Loeb and Nishimura, 2010; Bissell and Hines, 2011).
Although more needs to be learned about both the mechanisms by which breast cancers arise and the array of factors that influence risk for them, much has been established. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.he prospect of developing breast cancer is a source of anxiety for many women.Further reduction of the incidence of breast cancer is a high priority, but finding ways to achieve this is a challenge. As in most types of adult cancer, breast cancer is thought to develop as a result of accumulated damage induced by both internal and external triggers resulting in initial carcinogenic events. Among the factors generally accepted as increasing women’s risk are older age, having a first child at an older age or never having a child, exposure to ionizing radiation, and use of certain forms of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT). Inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes also markedly increase risk for breast cancer (and other cancers as well), but these mutations are rare in the general population and account for only 5 to 10 percent of cases (ACS, 2011). that critical events in the origins of breast cancer can occur very early in life; the variety of pathways through which breast cancer risks may be shaped; and the potential significance of both the timing of exposures and the way combinations of factors determine the effect on risks for different types of breast cancer. (Based on November 2010 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER website, 2011.) (accessed June 1, 2011). This growing knowledge has stimulated a transition in breast cancer research. Breast cancer remains the most common invasive cancer among women (aside from nonmelanoma skin cancers), accounting in 2011 for an estimated 230,480 new cases among women in the United States and another 2,140 new cases among men (ACS, 2011). Chemicals causing mammary gland tumors in animals signal new directions for epidemiology, chemicals testing, and risk assessment for breast cancer prevention. WCRF/AICR (World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research). Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: A global perspective. Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: Principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. After lung cancer, it is the second most common cause of mortality from cancer for women, with about 39,520 deaths expected in the United States in 2011.