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To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first network-based approach that explored the escalating patterns of verbal abuse according to differential sources in addition to the directional associations between the severity of perceived verbal abuse versus the psychopathology and social interaction pattern.
The total score served as the substance-mediated component of the social interaction feature of network analyses.
The ASRS-v.1.1 assesses attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using 18 DSM-IV symptom criteria.
KH-2012–16), and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects after the procedures had been fully explained.
All procedures were performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the KAIST IRB on human experimentation and the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008.
The GAD-7 instrument features seven items exploring nervousness, uncontrollable worry, worrying about different things, trouble relaxing, restlessness, irritability, and the fear that something awful might happen; respondents report the severity of each symptom using a 4-point Likert scale [from 0 = ‘not at all’ to 3 = ‘nearly every day’] (measured using the SAS).
The LSAS assesses the level of fear/anxiety associated with, and the severity of avoidance of, 24 social situations using a 4-point Likert scale [from 0 = ‘not at all’ to 3 = ‘very much’] and derived eight sub-domains that measured fear/anxiety or avoidance for ‘public speaking’ [items 20, 16, 6, 15, and 5], ‘social interaction with strangers’ [items 10, 11, and 12], ‘assertiveness’ [items 21, 22, 24, 18, and 14], and ‘public interaction’ [items 4, 1, 3, 7, 8, and 19].
To measure the psychopathology of depressive mood (using the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)) (the smartphone addiction scale (SAS))], that have been associated with perceived verbal abuse (by applying the verbal abuse questionnaire (VAQ)), we applied several self-reporting questionnaire listed below.
The PHQ-9 is a nine-item module assessing the severity of depressive symptoms, including low-level interest or pleasure, feeling down and hopeless, trouble sleeping, tiredness or having little energy, poor appetite/overeating, guilt, trouble concentrating, moving slowly/restlessness, and suicidal thoughts.
We evaluated six Part A ASRS-v1.1 items including: 1) trouble finalising a project; 2) difficulty in organisation; 3) problems remembering appointments or obligations; 4) avoiding commencing tasks requiring a lot of thought; 5) fidgeting or squirming (hands or feet) when sitting for a long time; and, 6) feeling overly active and compelled to do things, as if driven by a motor.
For each item, respondents reported the frequencies of such experiences over the prior six months, using five options (never, rarely, sometimes, often, or very often).