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At the same time, they merge and collectively shape the course of development of Chinese culture, which is an epitome of the complementary feature of Chinese culture.This article explains the ideas of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism and how they influence Chinese gardens to offer a glimpse of the development of Chinese gardens.1.
Rather, it promotes harmonious co-existence between man and nature with the belief that they are essentially connected, hence theories such as “man is an integral part of nature” and “man and everything are one”.
Therefore, ideas and theories shape Chinese people’s standards of art, which is being part of nature.
People would associate bamboos with humility, honor, ambition, resisting frost and cold, and reconciling itself to the situation, among other characters and spirits.
Many poets and writers in the past wrote poems and essays about bamboos.
During its origin and development, Confucianism has developed its own set of theories: ideas like “benevolence and righteousness” and “rite and music” developed by Confucius advocate justice and the doctrine of the mean.
In terms of politics, there are ideas like “rule of virtue” and “policy of benevolence”.People would regard such aesthetic object as a symbol of beauty in virtue, in spirit and in personality.Since ancient times, bamboos have been a symbol of beautiful things and noble characters.The biggest difference between Chinese gardens and other garden systems in the world is that the former will not take the actual landscape we can see as the ultimate design goal.It is all about the image behind the landscape and meanings beyond what is expressed, and that is the so-called “imaginary”.Like Yan Yu said in Canglang’s Notes on Poets and Poetry: “It would be like the sound in the air, the color in the image, the moon in the water, and the image in the mirror, which all tell much more than they reveal.” Therefore, a garden should collect natural mountain, water and rocks in its landscape design, and let visitors feel that they “understand the best part of the garden but do not know how to describe it”.The origin of “imaginary” in the art creation of Chinese garden is closely connected to Chinese philosophical ideas.Confucianism and Chinese Gardens In the history of cultural development of China, Confucianism was the mainstream of traditional culture.In the Pre-Qin Period, Chinese culture was in a varying form of “a contention of 100 schools”, and Confucianism was only one of the schools, but after Emperor Wu of Han adopted Dong Zhongshu’s suggestion to “outcast 100 schools and focus only on Confucianism”, Confucianism has become the orthodox representation of Chinese culture, having deep influence on the development of culture in China.After processing and refinement, natural and artificial beauties are united to create an art piece featuring man-nature coexistence and harmony.The couplet in Canglang Pavilion in Suzhou writes: “The wind and the moon are priceless; the near-by water and the remote mountain are emotional.” It expresses the owner’s idea of being part of nature and the easy mood in nature.